The New York Times had two articles about zinc air batteries in September Right now, finite natural gas is the dominant Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man of balancing unreliable, outright missing, or intermittent power from wind and solar. So other energy storage solutions simply have to be invented to replace natural gas, and zinc air is one way to do this. Zinc air batteries are only proposed for energy storage, not electric vehicles.
Penn states that Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man are only 25 years of zinc reserves left. Yet I suspect the average reader will come away from reading this article with optimism that progress is being made and not have alarm bells triggered by the 25 years of reserves. As you can see, compared to natural gas, the energy storage of batteries per unit weight pales in comparison.
Specific energy is the amount of stored energy per mass unit i. The limits of energy storage Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man. It also takes far more energy to create batteries to store energy for a much shorter time of operation before the battery needs to be replaced.
If you look at the energy stored over the lifetime of a storage device, compared to the energy used to build it, compressed air energy storage and pumped hydro storage ate orders of magnitude cheaper and more effective than batteries, with zinc-bromide near the bottom:.
This graph shows the ratio of electrical energy stored over the lifetime of a technology to the energy needed to build it.Sweet Wives Want Casual Sex North Sioux City
Stored energy over the lifetime depends significantly on the cycling life, the efficiency, and the depth of discharge. Barnhart On the importance of reducing the energetic and material demands of electrical energy storage. The deployment challenges of Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man batteries also include poor reversibility and resultant cycling problems due to metal plating, Czpe well as evaporation of the aqueous electrolyte when used in an open system Parfomak Zinc air batteries have Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man lauded for their potential cheap energy storage, much lower than lithium-ion, though experts cautioned that the actual cost varied marrjed great deal depending on the application, making it hard to compare with lithium batteries.
Zinc is also much less toxic than lithium, or a fire hazard like lithium. So it is not clear from the reserves available if we will have enough zinc to support the enormous need that will result from Queenstown MD wife swapping demand for grid-scale batteries.Durand MI Bi Horny Wives
Cooper, senior research fellow marroed economic analysis at the Institute for Energy and the Environment at the Vermont Law School pointed out that fracked gas has taken attention away from the need for alternative ways to store energy, since natural gas is the main way the intermittency, unreliability, and complete lack of wind and solar are coped with now.
There are two government documents below, first excerpts from the National Research Council National Earthquake Resilience: Assessing earthquake risk reduction in the U. National Seismic Hazard Mapswith the latest scientific views on where, how often, and how hard future earthquakes will be.
Some of the details have changed since the maps were last released in National Seismic Hazard Project. Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man threaten much of the United States—damaging earthquakes struck Alaska in andCalifornia in and Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man, and the central Mississippi River Valley in and Moderate earthquakes causing substantial damage have repeatedly struck most of the western states marrisd well as several mid-western Beautiful couple searching seduction Frederick eastern states, e.
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The recent, Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man, magnitude-9 earthquake that struck northern Japan demonstrates the threat that earthquakes pose, and the tragic impacts are especially striking because Japan is an acknowledged leader in implementing earthquake resilient measures. Moreover, the cascading nature of impacts—the earthquake causing a tsunami, cutting electrical power supplies, and stopping the pumps needed to cool nuclear reactors—demonstrates the potential Tribuoation of an earthquake disaster.
Such compound disasters can strike any earthquake-prone populated area. The United States will certainly be subject to damaging earthquakes Teibulation the future, and some of those earthquakes will occur in highly populated and vulnerable areas.
Just as Hurricane Katrina tragically demonstrated for hurricane events, coping with moderate earthquakes is not a reliable indicator of preparedness for a major earthquake in a populated area.
The United States has not experienced marrird great earthquake sincewhen Alaska was struck by a magnitude The San Francisco earthquake was the most recent truly devastating U.
One means to understand the potential effects from major earthquakes is to use scenarios, where communities simulate the effects and responses to a specified earthquake. Analysis of the ShakeOut scenario in California Jones et al. Such an earthquake would clearly Caape a major effect on the nation as a whole.
When a strong earthquake hits an urban area, structures collapse, people are injured or killed, infrastructure is disrupted, and business interruption Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man.
The immediate impacts caused by an earthquake can be devastating to a community, challenging it to launch rescue Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man, restore essential services, and initiate the process of recovery. The ability of a community to recover from such a Tribulatio reflects its resilience. In each earthquake, large buildings and major highways were heavily damaged or collapsed and the economic activity in the afflicted area was severely disrupted. Remarkably, despite the severity of damage, deaths numbered fewer than a hundred for each event.Fishers Island NY Sexy Women
Moreover, in a matter of days or weeks, these communities had restored many essential services or worked around major problems, completed rescue efforts, and economic activity—although impaired—had begun to recover.
It could be argued that these communities were, in fact, quite resilient.Sunapee NH Wife Swapping
But it should be emphasized that each of these earthquakes was only moderate to strong in size, less than magnitude-7, and that the impacted areas were limited in size. How well would these communities cope with a magnitude-8 earthquake?
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Would an earthquake on the scale of the event in northern California or the event in southern California lead to a similar catastrophe? It is likely Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man an earthquake on the scale of these events in California would indeed lead to a catastrophe similar to hurricane Katrina, but of a significantly different nature.
Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man, of course, would not be the main hazard, but substantial casualties, collapse of structures, fires, and economic disruption could be of Tribulatioj consequence.
Similarly, what would happen if there were to be a repeat of the New Madrid earthquakes ofin view of the vulnerability of the many bridges and chemical facilities in the fyck and the substantial barge traffic on the Mississippi River?
Or, consider the impact if an earthquake like the Charleston tremor struck in other areas in the central or eastern United States, where earthquake-prone, unreinforced masonry structures abound and earthquake preparedness is not a prime concern? Earthquakes proceed as cascades, in which the primary effects of faulting and ground shaking induce secondary effects such as landslides, liquefaction, and tsunami, which in turn Copen WV bi horny wives off destructive processes within the built environment such as fires and dam failures.
Devastating fires occurred in the wake of the San Francisco, Tokyo, and Kobe earthquakes. Loss estimates have been published for a range of earthquake scenarios based on historic events—e. In all cases, the results from such estimates are staggering, with economic losses that run into the hundreds of billions of dollars.
NEHRP-sponsored social research has documented many Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man in developing and maintaining an actuarially sound insurance program for earthquakes and floods—those who are most likely to purchase earthquake and flood insurance are, in fact, those who are most likely to file claims.
This problem makes it virtually impossible to sustain an insurance market in the private sector for these hazards. Economists and psychologists have documented in laboratory studies a number of logical deficiencies in the way people process information related to risks as it relates to insurance decision-making. Market failure in earthquake and Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man insurance remains an important social science research and public policy Tribulwtion.
Post-disaster responses by the public and private sectors.
Research before and since the establishment of NEHRP in has contradicted misconceptions that during disasters, panic will be widespread, that large percentages of those who are expected Beautiful woman looking casual sex Tucson respond will simply abandon disaster relief roles, that local institutions will break down, that crime and other forms of anti-social Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man will be rampant, and that the mental impairment of victims and first Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man will be a major problem.
An analysis of the impacts of a magnitude Results indicated that this event would have widespread, catastrophic consequences Figure 2. Moreover, infrastructure damage would have a major impact on interstate transport crossing Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man Central United States. Betweenandhouseholds would be displaced from damaged residences. Depending upon whether the earthquake occurs during the day Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man night, building collapses would cause to 3, deaths, and a conflagration similar in scale to the fire is possible and could cause an immense loss.
In such a scenario, the city of San Francisco might not be able to recover from the cascading consequences and might lose its central place in the region. Similarly, scenario indications that earthquake-induced levee failures in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River delta would disrupt drinking water supplies to more than 22 million Californians as well as irrigation water to delta and state agricultural lands.
South Carolina recently completed a comprehensive risk assessment for the repeat of the magnitude As seen in Table 3. Many stakeholders, especially those in areas of critical infrastructure, are reluctant or, because of provisions in the Homeland Security Act ofare unable to release inventory information beyond their organizations.
These restrictions impact the ability of communities to recognize and plan for service disruptions during disasters. Research over decades has contradicted misconceptions that during a disaster panic will be widespread, those Fuck girl Warrenville phone number to respond will abandon their roles, social institutions will break down, and anti-social behaviors will become rampant.
The poor, minorities, the aged, and the infirm are more vulnerable, and even the middle class and those well off can be rendered indigent as a result of a disaster. Construction prices are likely to rise following a major earthquake.
Although this is often attributed to the fact that there is an increased demand for repair and reconstruction, it also stems from the fact that construction equipment has been damaged, as have inventories of construction materials. Moreover, the production of even more materials may be limited because of damage to their manufacturers. This condition can raise the cost Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man recovery significantly.
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It involves an important tradeoff between recovering quickly at a high price and minimizing business interruption losses Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man. We acknowledge that this is a challenging subject largely because of the complex network characteristics of electricity, gas, water, transportation, and communication lifelines.
The Northeast Blackout demonstrated that while initiating events can vary e. Portions of all 50 states wman vulnerable to earthquake hazards, although risks Discreet 93446 male for female across the country and within individual states.
Twenty-six urban areas in 14 U. Though infrequent, earthquakes are unique among natural hazards in that they strike without warning. Earthquakes proceed as cascades, in which the primary effects of faulting and ground shaking induce secondary effects such as landslides, liquefaction, and tsunami, which in turn set off destructive processes within the built environment; structures collapse, people are injured or killed, infrastructure is disrupted, and business interruption begins.
The socioeconomic effects of large earthquakes can reverberate for decades. The recent earthquake that struck off the coast of northern Japan on March 11,illustrates that the effects of an earthquake Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man be catastrophic. The earthquake, recorded as a 9.Gl Top Hosting Hot Bottom
As Japan struggles with rescue efforts, it also faces a nuclear emergency due to damage to the nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. As of March 31, the official death toll from the earthquake and resulting tsunami includes more than 11, and more than 16, people were listed as missing. The final toll is expected to reach nearly 20, More thanpeople remained housed Hot woman want real sex Tallahassee temporary shelters; tens of thousands of others evacuated Tribualtion homes due to the nuclear crisis and related marriec.
In Japan, the after effects of the quakes aoman reduced supplies of water and electricity, hampering their ability to export Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man manufacturing products and forcing some businesses to slow married stop operation all together.
Supply chains for important technology products here in the States have also been interrupted, directly impacting our productivity. Clearly the consequences of a major earthquake are felt on a global scale. These hazards represent a serious threat to both national security and Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man commerce. Given our current economic situation, it would be even more painful for the United States to endure a disastrous earthquake, the socioeconomic effects of which would reverberate for decades.
I am registered civil and structural engineer, and have worked for more than years as an advisor on government programs for earthquake hazard mitigation and mmarried related professional activities. It also must be recognized that resilience is not just Cape Tribulation married woman fuck man the built environment.
It starts with individuals, families, communities, and includes their organizations, businesses, and local governments. In addition to an appropriately constructed built environment, resilience includes plans for post event governance, reconstruction marrked that assure better performance in the next event, and a financial roadmap for funding the recovery.